The Lemon tree seems to have originated in Assyria. It spread eastward and became particularly well established in India later moving westwards. It was cultivated by the Romans, who called its fruit "green apples". It was the Arabs who first introduced the tree into Europe in the 12th century. The fruit's pulp and juice are traditional ingredients of recipes handed down over the centuries. Its cosmetic virtues have long been known. The delicate fragrance, abundant vitamin C and fruit acid content is still widely used to soothe and tone skin, as well as lighten skin colouring.